Chronic gingivitis, also known as chronic gum inflammation, occurs in almost 90% of Central Europeans. It is the most common inflammation of the human body.
Inflammation is the first sign of gingivitis. The gums are red and swollen. The inflammation leads to a gradual enlargement of the gums, which is manifested at first by spaces between teeth becoming larger and rounder. Stippling gradually disappears, and the gums become smooth. Periodontal pockets occur (gum inflammation spreading towards the neck and root of the tooth, which widens the gap between the gum and the tooth). Bleeding upon stimulation is another symptom typical for inflammation. Gums bleed, for example, when brushing teeth, when eating, etc.
The level of inflammation can be judged according to the intensity of bleeding (PBI - papilla bleeding index). Gingivitis is an infection caused by the harmful bacteria contained in plaque - the soft coating that sticks to the teeth and gums. These bacteria release toxic substances. These toxins, which irritate the gums, cause bleeding and make the gums swollen, red and sensitive. This triggers the body’s defensive response, and inflammation develops. Gum inflammation may affect the area around one or more teeth.
When gingivitis is caused by plaque, the inflammation only affects the gum, but the deeper tissues - periodontal ligaments fixing the tooth root to the bone of the socket, i.e. periodontium, are not affected. This disease can be successfully treated without any permanent impact on the gums or teeth. However, if gum inflammation is left untreated for a long period of time (for months or years), it can affect the deeper tissues of the periodontium and develop into periodontosis.
According to statistics, more than 95% of residents in Western countries have problems with their teeth and gums. Poor dietary habits, especially a high consumption of white refined sugar and white flour, are one of the main causes of this problem. Your diet should include plenty of Vitamins A, C and E. Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and copper are the most important minerals in this regard. Bacteria thrive in a dry mouth. Therefore, make sure you drink plenty of fluids!
Development of gum inflammation
Gum inflammation may be aggravated by the following factors: tartar, smoking, stress, hormonal changes (puberty, pregnancy, menstruation), certain diseases (diabetes, blood disorders), use of certain medications (older types of oral contraception) or a lack of vitamins (Vitamin C). The gums of smokers are more susceptible to infection, because smoking and tobacco use reduces blood flow and the transport of nutrients into the gums.
Gingivitis and Severe periodontis
Severity of inflammation. The PBI (Papilla Bleeding Index) helps to determine the severity of inflammation affecting the gums. This index helps to check whether you perform your dental hygiene at home as instructed and shows which places you should focus on more, and it recommends suitable dental instruments. If inflammation is present in the gums, the gum begins to bleed within 30 seconds of the test performed by the dentist. This index is assessed visually on a scale of 5 values.