Knowledge Base

Development of hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation arises from excessive melanin production by melanocytese at the bounded place of the skin. Hyperpigmentation manifests itself in the form of pigment accumulation (freckles, birthmarks, pigment spots) that differ in colour, size, and place of origin.

We have some of these skin manifestations since birth, while others appear over the course of our lives. The formation of these conditions is predominantly influenced by genetic predisposition and the effects of solar radiation, which activate melanocytes to produce melanin. However, they may also appear as a consequence of the skin burning, inflammations, the use of contraception (which increases skin sensitivity to solar radiation), a hormonal disorder, or aging. 

Although they are up to 95% non-malignant, birthmarks and pigment spots must be monitored to avoid the worst variant of malignant melanoma. In most cases, they are just a cosmetic problem, but it can be a risk indicator for the development of skin cancer.


Melasma is a hyperpigmentation disorder that manifests as dark and irregular spots in the central areas of the face after exposure to sunlight. It is most common in pregnant women. It is a result of hormonal effects during pregnancy or the use of hormonal contraceptives.